Enameling is glass fused to metal at high heat using a torch or kiln. Vitreous enamels are finely ground glass, like fine sand but even more finely pulverized. They may be opaque or transparent and their colors come from the use of various oxides. Enamels are similar to ceramic glazes, except that glazes are in a raw state when applied to ceramics and go through chemical changes in the firing process that smelt them into glass, enamels have already been smelted. The firing process simply melts them and fuses them to the metal. The enameling process is specific: the enamelist must have a good knowledge of the colors and the effect of heat on them, as some of them change with the firing. An individual enameled copper piece will have been fired on average of four to ten or more times. Metals may be worked - etched, chased, formed, etc. Enameling is tremendously durable and characterized by brilliant, non-fading colors that transmit a variety of color effects depending on the opacity and angle of light. My favorite pieces are those I make rescuing discarded pre-1980 pennies, giving them new life and turning them into something uniquely beautiful!